We tested the hypotheses that poor comprehenders’ deficiencies are associated with a specific difficulty in the working memory updating process, particularly in controlling for information that is no longer relevant.In the first experiment, groups of poor and good comprehenders, ages 8–11 years, were administered a working memory updating task.The phonological loop is assumed to be responsible for the manipulation of speech based information, whereas the visuo-spatial sketch pad is assumed to be responsible for manipulating visual images.
Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults.
These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age.
Results suggest that the proposed components make distinct and additive contribu- tions to WMU.
We found that WMC reliably predicts WMU in general, but also that some components of WMU are inde- pendent of WMC.
Experiments were categorized into 4 component functions central to WM: protecting WM from external distraction (distractor resistance), preventing irrelevant memories from intruding into WM (intrusion resistance), shifting attention within WM (shifting), and updating the contents of WM (updating).
Data were also sorted by content (verbal, spatial, object).
The central executive is the most important component of the model, although little is known about how it functions.
It is responsible for monitoring and coordinating the operation of the slave systems (i.e.
For instance, WMU has been found to predict fluid intelligence and reading com- prehension.
However, little is known about the underlying component processes of WMU or the relationship between WMU and working memory capacity (WMC).
The decomposition was used to analyze the relationship between WMU subcom- ponents and WMC.