Pastoral nomadism, subsistence mountain agriculture, and irrigation are practiced.At the end of the eighteenth century, Kabul became the capital. This is useful for anyone researching Afghan culture, customs, manners, etiquette, values and wanting to understand the people better.
The word "Afghan" historically has been used to designate the members of an ethnic group also called the Pashtuns, but Afghanistan is multicultural and multiethnic.
The state was formed by the political expansion of Pashtun tribes in the middle of the eighteenth century but was not unified until the end of the nineteenth century.
Afghanistan returns to Shariah law and remains a monarchy for the next 40 years.
Shah takes an official trip overseas and Mohammed Daoud Khan seizes power in a bloodless coup.
Precipitation is low, although some areas in the east are affected by the monsoon.
Most of the country is covered by steppes, with desert areas and some patches of cultivated land.
Remember this is only a very basic level introduction and is not meant to stereotype all Afghanis you may meet!
Pashtu and Dari (Afghan Persian/Farsi) are the official languages of Afghanistan.
According to estimates, approximately 35% of the Afghan population speaks Pashtu, and about 50% speaks Dari.
Turkic languages (Uzbek and Turkmen) are spoken by about 11% of the population.
There are also numerous other languages spoken in the country (Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, etc.), and bilingualism is very common.